Like a typical RPG, your characters have several stats that will grow as you grow stronger. You can also increase you stats through stronger equipment and certain consumable items. To explain each one as simply as possible, here is a list of each stat, their abbreviation, and what that stat does. Puella Magi Elaine Magica has a simple formula based stat system that determines damage dealt/taken and chances to evade.
Level (LV) – The character’s current Level, all characters max out at LV 1000.
Experience Points (EXP) – Points earned through winning battles, each character has a certain amount before they grow to the next level.
Ability Points (AP) – The amount of points needed to learn abilities. The stronger the ability, the more the cost.
Hit Points (HP) – The amount of hits each character can take, the character is down if it hits zero. If your entire party is at zero HP, it’s Game Over.
Magic Points (MP) – The amount of points each character has to use magic based skills. Some skills may also require additional cost.
Limit Points (LP) – The amount of points each character has to use powerful Limit skills, LP is built up and stored as you both deal damage and take damage. Will always need additional costs aside in addition to 100 or more LP.
Attack (ATK) – Determines how much physical damage the character can deal.
Defense (DEF) – Determines how much physical damage the character can take.
Intelligence (INT) – Determines how much magical damage the character can deal.
Resistance (RES) – ?Determines how much magical damage the character can take, also determines your chance of evading magic.
Agility (AGI) – The character’s speed, determines how quickly their ATB bar will fill under normal conditions, also determines your chance of evading.
Luck (Luck) – Determines the success rate of causing a status effect, as well as calculates the chances of getting items.
Another note is to keep an eye out for elemental resistance, armor, status effects (and some passive skills) can change this temporary (or permanent as long as it’s equipped). But other than that, each character has their own natural weakness and resistances.